By Ian McNeil
* 22 sections conceal the total box of the historical past of expertise and every part summarises the advance of its topic from the earliest occasions to the current day* Written with no pointless jargon* 2 huge indexes of Names and themes* Usefully illustrated with a hundred and fifty black & white images and line drawings to provide an explanation for key advances`Contain[s] an unlimited quantity of trustworthy details over a really large box. it really is definitely a piece of which I shall myself make widespread use ... it merits to discover a spot ... in each reference library.' - instances larger schooling Supplement`The insurance is superb ... a most precious single-volume resource which for its comprehensiveness and simplicity of reference will earn its position in either professional and normal reference collections.' - Reference Reviews`Informative and accomplished, outstanding in its insurance ... covers each element of expertise from the Stone Age to the distance Age ... will certainly aid readers to get a grip on and think of an incredible diversity of matters ... a useful and useful addition to most department bookshelves or libraries.' - New Civil Engineer`The authors represented during this publication are to be congratulated for his or her readable and trustworthy surveys of the previous and current prestige of the key components the place mankind has harnessed technology for the creation of worthy items and processes.' - selection
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Extra resources for An Encyclopaedia of the History of Technology
From Agostino Ramelli’s Diverse et Artificiose Machine, 1588. in the carpenter’s brace. In all these cases the mechanism was hand-operated. The first known use of the crank and connecting rod is found about 1430 when it was used in the drive of a flour mill. A useful drive mechanism was the treadle, used first for looms and, by about 1250, to drive a lathe, a cord attached to a treadle having a connection to a flexible pole above the lathe for the return stroke. Some two hundred years later, a treadle with a crank and connecting rod was used for flour milling.
It involved the mechanical processes of cutting punches of brass or copper and later of iron, each of a single letter; the stamping of the punches into copper plate to form the moulds into which the molten type metal of tin, lead and antimony could be cast. The stems of all the letters were of the same cross-sections and the same height, so that they could be assembled in any order and were interchangeable. They were then clamped in trays to form blocks of type to make up pages, inked and then pressed against sheets of paper in a screw press.
It is interesting to note that the impulse to create and the ability to produce images of animals (including men and women) seems to date from late Palaeolithic times at least, that is before about 12,000 BC. Relief carving on cave walls, modelling in clay and powdered bone paste, and cave wall painting were all included in the artistic activities of the Gravettian and Magdelenian cultures that were established in the Dordogne region of France. Black oxide of manganese and the ochres or red and yellow oxides of iron, generally ground to a powder and mixed with some fatty medium, were the colours generally used and probably represent man’s first excursions into the world of chemistry as well as that of art.
An Encyclopaedia of the History of Technology by Ian McNeil