By K. Feste
What coverage is better for the USA to lessen the specter of Islamic extremist terrorism? fresh American presidents have utilized replacement clash solution techniques. Clinton practiced clash avoidance, speaking tricky yet not often retaliating opposed to anti-American terrorist assaults. G. W. Bush followed a fighter technique and the worldwide warfare on Terrorism and army interventions in Afghanistan and Iraq mirror this approach. Obama brought a 3rd replacement: challenge fixing and lengthening peaceable overtures whereas maintaining resistance. Will the method prevail? Feste analyzes presidential rhetoric on counterterrorism coverage throughout the lens of factor framing, enemy aggression, self -hardship, and victimization expressed in a number of speeches introduced by way of those leader executives to focus on and examine their clash solution suggestions.
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Extra resources for America Responds to Terrorism: Conflict Resolution Strategies of Clinton, Bush, and Obama (The Evolving American Presidency)
Decision to intervene in Korea was a result of framing effects, according to Maoz (pp. 101–105). North Korea’s invasion of South Korea in June 1950 caught the Truman administration unprepared. Until the invasion, the United States had no intention of committing military forces to defend South Korea. From the outset, North Korean aggression was assumed to be planned and inspired by the USSR; thus, the issue was not whether to intervene in a local civil war, but rather whether to resist a major Soviet test of American resolve.
Framing is the process by which a communication source constructs and defines a social or political issue for its audience. A source defines the essential problem and outlines a set of considerations purportedly relevant to the issue. A frame is a central organizing idea for making sense of relevant world events and suggesting what is at issue. S. support for the other side). Nelson, Oxley, and Clawson (1997) show how the conflict in former Yugoslavia has been framed both as a genocidal war of imperialism between a powerful and blood thirsty invader and its helpless neighbor, and as a centuries-old ethnic and religious dispute that has only recently flared up after communist domination of the region vanished.
Policymakers use heuristics to explain how people interpret their environment and locate themselves in a domain of either gain or loss (cognitive shortcuts that systematically bias our judgments, such as representativeness, adjustment and anchoring, and availability, for example, how easily it comes to mind). So judgments are influenced on what is similar, what comes easily to mind and comes first—but this is not always helpful, says Mercer (2005, pp. 7, 17) for we only apply them ex post facto.
America Responds to Terrorism: Conflict Resolution Strategies of Clinton, Bush, and Obama (The Evolving American Presidency) by K. Feste